Fitness Fridays – Graphs showing why people are getting FAT (Science is Awesome)

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1. People Are Eating More Junk Food Than Ever

Food Spending, Smaller

Source: Dr. Stephan Guyenet. Fast Food, Weight Gain and Insulin Resistance.Whole Health Source.

People are eating more calories than before… but pretty much all of the increase has come from processed foods.

In the graph above, you see how the population changed its eating habits in the past 120-130 years.

At the turn of the 20th century, people were eating mostly simple, home-cooked meals. Around 2009, about half of what people ate was fast food, or other foods away from home.

This graph actually underestimate the true change, because what people are eating at home these days is also largely based on processed foods.

2. Sugar Consumption Has Skyrocketed

Sugar Consumption in the UK and USA

Source: Johnson RJ, et al. Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2007.

Added sugar is the single worst ingredient in the modern diet.

Numerous studies show that eating excess amounts of added sugar can have harmful effects on metabolism, leading to insulin resistance, belly fat gain, high triglycerides and small, dense LDL cholesterol… to name a few (12).

There is also a plethora of observational studies showing that the people who eat the most sugar are at a much greater risk of getting type 2 diabetes, heart disease and even cancer (345).

Sugar is also fattening, partly because it doesn’t get registered in the same way as other calories by the brain, making us eat more. It also has adverse effects on hormones related to obesity (6789).

Not surprisingly, studies show that people who eat the most sugar are at a high risk of future weight gain and obesity (10).

3. People Gain Lots of Weight During The Holidays, Which They Never Get Rid Of

Holiday Weight Gain in the US

Source: Dr. Stephan Guyenet. Why do we Overeat? A Neurobiological Perspective.2014.

Most people don’t gain weight overnight… it happens slowly, over years and decades.

But the rate is uneven throughout the year and spikes dramatically during the holidays, a time when people tend to binge on all sorts of delicious holiday foods and eat much more than their bodies need.

The problem is that sometimes people don’t lose all the weight back. They might gain 3 pounds, but only lose 2 after the holidays are over, leading to slow and steady weight gain over time (11).

In fact, a large percentage of people’s lifetime weight gain can be explained just by the 6 week holiday period.

4. The Obesity Epidemic Started When The Low-Fat Guidelines Were Published

Low Fat Guidelines and Obesity Epidemic

Source: National Center for Health Statistics (US). Health, United States, 2008: With Special Feature on the Health of Young Adults. 2009 Mar. Chartbook.

There was an epidemic of heart disease running rampant in the U.S. in the 20th century.

A lot of scientists believed fat, especially saturated fat, to be the main dietary cause of heart disease (although this has since been disproven).

This led to the birth of the low-fat diet, which aims to restrict saturated fat. Interestingly, the obesity epidemic started at almost the exact same time the low-fat guidelines first came out.

Of course, this doesn’t prove anything, because correlation doesn’t equal causation.

But it does seem likely that putting the emphasis on saturated fat, while giving processed low-fat foods high in sugar a free pass, may have contributed to negative changes in the population’s diet.

There are also massive long-term studies showing that the low-fat diet does NOT cause weight loss, and does not prevent heart disease or cancer (12131415).

5. Food is Cheaper Than Ever Before

Food Price Trends as Percentage of Disposable Income

Source: Dr. Stephan Guyenet. Why do we Overeat? A Neurobiological Perspective.2014.

One factor that has most likely contributed to increased consumption is a lower price of food.

From the graph above, you see that food prices have dropped from 25% of disposable income to about 10% of disposable income in the past 80 years.

This seems like a good thing, but it’s important to keep in mind that real food isn’t cheap… it’s processed food.

In fact, real foods are so expensive that a lot of people can’t even afford them. In many poor neighborhoods, they don’t even offer anything but junk food, which is often subsidized by the government.

How are poor people supposed to stand a chance if the only food they can afford (and access) is highly processed junk high in sugar, refined grains and added oils?

6. People Are Drinking More Sugary Soda and Fruit Juices

Caloric Beverage Consumption in USA

The brain is the main organ in charge of regulating our energy balance… making sure that we don’t starve and don’t accumulate excess fat.

Well, it turns out that the brain doesn’t “register” liquid sugar calories in the same way as it does solid calories (16).

So if you consume a certain number of calories from a sugary drink, then your brain doesn’t automatically make you eat fewer calories of something else instead (17).

That’s why liquid sugar calories are usually added on top of the daily calorie intake. Unfortunately, most fruit juices are no better and have similar amounts of sugar as soft drinks (18).

Studies have shown that a single daily serving of a sugar-sweetened beverage is linked to a 60.1% increased risk of obesity in children (19).

Sugar is bad… but sugar in liquid form is even worse.

7. Increased Food Variety Contributes to Overeating and Weight Gain

Food Variety and Weight Gain

Source: Dr. Stephan Guyenet. Why do we Overeat? A Neurobiological Perspective.2014.

One factor that contributes to overeating is food variety.

The graph above shows a study where rats were split in 3 groups… one group got regular healthy chow, the second group got one type of junk food, but the third got multiple types of junk food at the same time (20).

As you can see, the rats eating one type of junk food gained more than the ones eating rat chow, but the rats eating multiple types of junk food gained the most… by far.

There is some evidence that this is true in humans as well. When we have more types of foods available, we eat more… and sometimes more than our bodies need (21).

8. People Don’t Burn as Many Calories When Working

Trends in Occupation-Related Physical Activity

Source: Church TS, et al. Trends over 5 Decades in U.S. Occupation-Related Physical Activity and Their Associations with Obesity. PLoS One, 2011.

A lot of people blame obesity on decreases in physical activity, that we’re just burning fewer calories than we used to.

Although leisure time physical activity (exercise) has increased, it is also true that people now have jobs that are less physically demanding.

The graph above shows how people are now burning around 100 fewer calories per day in their jobs, which may contribute to weight gain over time.

Credit: Authority Nutrition

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No Woman (Or Man), No Cry – Are you a crazy cat lady? (Red Flags for Women)

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A REAL man? Aren’t all men real?

A woman who begins a sentence with “A real man would….”

This is super annoying

“If you loved me you’d…”

This isn’t a damn test.

Keyword: Girls

Girls that verbally abuse their SO in public

Girls that try to embarrass guys that hit on them

Girls that use sex to make people like them

Girls that need to snoop

Girls with multiple baby daddies

Girls that need the group to make decisions for them

Gold diggers

Girls in their upper-20s and 30s that still only ever apply to part time jobs and spend the rest of the time partying despite being completely qualified and capable of landing a proper 9-5 with good pay and benefits while still complaining how they never have money for stuff. And in almost every case they are looking for a guy with solid career and good income (who they will complain can’t come out partying all the time) to sweep them up.

Constant hate

I’d even throw in girls that use the word, “haters” in a, “serious” tone. Using it in a joke is fine though.

This is not good

I know a girl that can only go 1-3 months between boyfriends. She doesn’t know how to be independent and self-sustaining, both mentally and physically.

That’s not going to fly

Obese and tries shaming me into finding her attractive.

Bad attitude

A “what can you do for me?” attitude.

Not being able to hold up their end of the conversation, or basically sitting there and expecting to be entertained.

Their living space looks like complete shit. I’m not a neat-freak by any stretch of the imagination, but if your room still looks like it does when you were 15 you need to reevaluate your life.

A general lack of self-awareness, or just an inability to recognize that their actions have consequences.

Being comfortable and casual is one thing, but showing up to a date in pajama bottoms is weapons-grade loser.

Using the pussy pass.

Proclaiming how much she gets along with her “friends” while tearing them down behind their backs.

Using sex as means to get attention.

Placing their sense of self-worth an getting attention from men.

Crying feminism when it benefits them, crying misogyny when it doesn’t.

Talking too much about their exes.

Perpetual victimhood.

Proclamations of “I don’t like drama.”

A general inability to take “no” for an answer.

Performing mental backflips in order to rationalize bad decision making in hindsight.

Being “proud” of their inability to handle basic food preparation or lack of domestic skills.

Wondering why they feel like shit all the time when their diet consists of mostly Cliff bars, flavored vodka, and Vitamin Water.

A lack of self discipline.

A preoccupation with what celebrities are doing with their lives.

Princess syndrome

Expects everyone else to carry her through life. Aka daddy’s little princess.

Complains about things and shows no interest in changing them.

Being 20+ and acting like 16.

Leeches

A random girl that approaches insisting that I should buy her and her friends drinks. Sorry, if that’s what you’re going to lead with, you’re probably not very interesting as a person and are a money pilfering leech. I don’t buy girls that aren’t my SO/friends drinks, anyways.

Women with awfully negative personalities and then blame all of the men around them for their single status. You want to know why you’re single? Because few men want someone who is a complete drag to be around 99.999% of the time.

It’s going to get ugly real fast

For me its a woman who’s only existence seems to be with you. She has no life outside you.

That’s not fair to guys

Women who, when a man finds them attractive but she doesn’t find him attractive, automatically labels him ‘creepy.’

A hollow shell

Women creating drama and whoring for attention when they’re older than 16

Women constantly complaining about how all the men they date are assholes

Women doing nothing with their lives, only existing through their trophy husband

Women who always present themselves as victims to justify their incapacity at being successful and interesting

Women having a huge amount of interest in reality TV and celebrities life

Women who only listen/watch the movies/music that the radio/TV feeds them. (Passive attitude with culture and information)

You’re their life support

If their parents pay all their bills and keep them up in a lavish lifestyle. I don’t want to become her next support.

Drama, drama, drama

Girls who say they don’t have many female friends because they cause drama. Almost invariably, it means they cause a shit load of drama but can’t take it when dished out to them.

No future

No job/career – my biggest red flag.

Awful, awful, awful

Women who are cowardly and overly dependent on others but think that acting like a bitch makes them “strong and independent”.

Women who treat every guy they don’t know like he must be some sort of creep even if he’s done nothing to justify it.

Making stupid-ass excuses

Women who use that obnoxious (and possibly misattributed) Marilyn Monroe quote about “handling them at their worst,” usually as a way to excuse their deplorable behavior and their unwillingness/inability to do something about it.

Super judgemental

Being super judgemental about people makes them a loser to me. Especially if it’s a snap judgement, or based of some preconceived notion.

If a girls on a high horse about everything and can do no wrong, she might as well have loser stamped on her forehead.

Not a good sign

A girl who has a new set of girlfriends about every six months to a year. You know that girl is going to end up being a big meanie with low self-esteem.

Major red flag here

“I have a long series of ex-boyfriends were assholes, abusive, alcoholics, etc…”

Only constant in your relationships is you.

Credit: Thought Catalog

Dating For Dummies

Brain Ninjas – YOU CAPTION THIS!!! (Ryan Fu with Marge Simpson)

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Epic Fail of the Week- Asking Cops for Sex

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No Officer, I don’t have any donuts in my car – How To Stop Cops from Searching Your Car

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Okay. So how can I keep police from searching my car?

Simply understanding the legal definition of probable cause probably won’t be enough to prepare you for the pressure and confusion of a real police encounter.

Most police are able to exploit a major loophole to the probable cause search requirement. But by following these basic rules, you’ll be better able to prevent police from tricking you into giving up your your constitutional rights. You’ll also improve your odds of driving away safely.

Always Be Calm & Cool

If police flag you down, pull over immediately, turn off your car, and place your hands on the wheel. Police like to see your hands for their own safety — so wait until they request your paperwork before reaching for it. At night, it’s also a good idea to turn on the dome light, so the officer can see you’re not armed.

Always greet policemen and policewomen as “Officer”. For example, you may start off with “Good afternoon, Officer. How’s it going today?” Under no circumstances should you ever talk back, raise your voice, or use profanity with a police officer. Being hostile with police is stupid and dangerous. You can’t win that game.

If the officer writes you a ticket, accept it quietly and never complain. Listen to any instruction on paying the fine or contesting the ticket, and drive away slowly.

Remain Silent: What You Don’t Say Can’t Hurt You

Police may try to get you to admit to having broken a law. For example, an officer may ask, “Do you know how fast you were going?”

You may assert your 5th Amendment protection against self-incrimination by refusing to admit you might have broken a law. As such, the best answer to that and similar questions is “No, Officer.”

Because anything you say can and will be used against you in court, the less you say the better. You also don’t want to announce to police that you know your rights. They’ll take that as a challenge. Just keep quiet and calm.

You Have the Right to Refuse Search Requests

Police may order the driver and any passengers out of the vehicle. If this happens, step out of the car. If they have reasonable suspicion to detain you, police may frisk the outside of your clothing to check for weapons, but only if they have a basis for suspecting you’re armed.

If police detain and frisk you, you have the right to clearly state your refusal to consent to the search. For example, you may say “Officer, I’m not resisting. I do not consent to this search.” But you should only verbally refuse. Never physically resist. Just touching an officer could get you tasered or beaten. You could also get a felony charge for assaulting a police officer.

Whether they frisk you or not, police may ask you a series of questions. They will probably include something like “You don’t mind if I have a look in your car?” Beware of that question: It’s the legal loophole that the officer wants to snare you in. (It might even sound like a command, but it’s technically a request.)

In response to such request, you may politely decline by saying “Officer, I know you’re just doing your job, but I don’t consent to searches.” Some officers may use their authority to make you feel obligated to prove your innocence by asking “What do you have to hide?” Don’t fall for such tricks. If necessary, repeat your refusal.

Remember: The 4th Amendment protects your right to refuse search requests, but it doesn’t require police to tell you about your right to refuse. In fact, consenting to searches automatically makes them legal in the eyes of the law. So if you’re pulled over, don’t try to figure out whether or not the officer has probable cause to legally search you. You always have the right to refuse searches.

Refusing a search request is not an admission of guilt and does not give the officer the legal right to search or detain you. In fact, most avoidable police searches don’t occur because police have probable cause. They occur because people get tricked or intimidated into consenting to search requests.

If police search your car and find illegal items despite your refusal, your lawyer can file a motion to suppress — or throw out — the evidence in court. If the judge agrees that the officer’s search violated the 4th Amendment’s probable cause requirements, she’ll grant the motion. Unless the prosecution has other evidence, your charges would be dismissed.

Determine if You’re Free to Go

Unless you’re detained or arrested, you may terminate the encounter anytime. But don’t wait for the officer to dismiss you. Ask if you’re free to go.

For example, if an officer threatens to call in a K-9 unit if you refuse a search, you should ask“Officer, are you detaining me, or am I free to go?”

Not only can this line can help withdraw you from an encounter, it also deflects any of the officer’s probing questions or threats. So if an officer says “If you cooperate with me, everything will go easy for you.” You may respond by saying either “Officer, I don’t consent to any searches” or “Officer, am I free to go?”

If the officer lets you leave, do so immediately. If the officer’s answer is unclear, or if he asks additional questions, persist by repeating “Officer, am I free to go?”

Ask for a Lawyer

If you are not free to go, you are being detained. The officer might have some reason to suspect you of a crime, and you may be arrested.

In such a situation, your magic words are “I’m going to remain silent. I would like to see a lawyer.” These magic words are like a legal condom. They’re your best protection if you’re under arrest.

Never rely on police to inform you of your right to remain silent and see a lawyer. Repeat the magic words as necessary, but say no more. Remember that anything you say can and will be used against you in court.

Reprinted with permission from Flex Your Rights.org.

Still thinking about getting that Hello Kitty Tattoo? – Tattoo Ink Poisoning Americans

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hello-kitty-tattoos

If you’re reading this, there’s a good chance that you have a tattoo. After all, nearly half of the population has decided at some point in their life that it was a good idea to permanently ink an image, or special symbol, onto their skin. Many hold no regrets when it comes to their tattoos; however, others embrace them less so with age.

But now there’s a new reason to rethink getting inked. Have you ever considered exactly what tattoo ink is made of? The ink is really pigment, and most are made of metal salts; however, some are made of plastics or vegetable dyes, and if organic, they’re usually plant-based.

Body-art lovers have complained of scarring, allergic reactions, and phototoxic reactions (adverse reaction to light or sunlight), and depending on the type of pigment, other complications can occur. Brightly colored plastic-based pigments have been particularly problematic for some, and glow-in-the-dark tattoos can be radioactive and toxic.

FDA has not approved any tattoo pigments for injection into the skin

. Tattoo parlors are regulated by the state and city, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not require manufacturers to release their ink’s ingredients; doing so could supposedly give away trade secrets.

The lack of regulation is slightly unnerving considering that 36 percent of people ages 18-25 have tattoos, as do 40 percent of those 26-40 years old. That means approximately 45 million Americans have been inked, and one-third of those did so because it makes them feel “sexy.”

Unfortunately, what makes you feel sexy now, could possibly make you feel sick later. The chemicals and heavy metals in tattoo ink can cause various forms of cancer, birth defects, certain mutations, and be destructive to your immune system.

 Many pigments used in tattoo inks are industrial-grade colors suitable for printer ink or automobile paint

. The FDA’s website warns about tattoo ink possibly causing infections, allergic reactions, keloids (formation of a scar), granulomas (inflammation) and potential complications while receiving MRIs.

Although rare, some people might experience swelling or burning in the tattoo while receiving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), according to the FDA.

A team of researchers is working with an Arkansas-based FDA laboratory to learn more about the chemistry between tattoos and the body. Chemist Paul Howard, Ph.D., with the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR), is investigating the “chemical composition of the inks and how they break down (metabolize) in the body.”

They’re also looking at the short-term and long-term safety of tattoo pigments, and how the body responds to the interaction of light with the inks.

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“There have been no systematic studies of the safety of tattoo inks,” said Howard, “so we are trying to ask–and answer–some fundamental questions.”

Part of the team’s research is to understand what happens to tattoo ink when it’s exposed to sunlight and fades over time. “Where does the pigment go?” asked Howard.

Some experts theorize that body cells digest and destroy the ink, ridding themselves of bacteria and other foreign matter as a defense mechanism. Yellow 74 pigment is believed to be broken down by enzymes, or metabolized, similar to the way our bodies excrete other substances, according to NCTR research.



Sunlight breaks down the pigment Yellow 74 into colorless compounds that, while invisible, most likely still remain in the skin and could potentially be toxic.

Research has also shown that some pigment migrates from the tattoo site to the body’s lymph nodes, explained Howard.



“Lymph nodes are part of the lymphatic system, a collection of fluid-carrying vessels in the body that filter out disease-causing organisms. Whether the migration of tattoo ink has health consequences or not is still unknown,” states the FDA’s website. 

Further research is definitely needed to fully understand the effects of tattoos; however, it’s worth considering next time you think about getting inked.



Credit: Natural News

Are you really Sorry? – Reasons why People will Never Apologize

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For non-apologists, saying “I’m sorry” carries psychological ramifications that run far deeper than the words themselves imply; it elicits fundamental fears (either conscious or unconscious) they desperately want to avoid:

  • Admissions of wrong doing are incredibly threatening for non-apologists because they have trouble separating their actions from their character. If they did something bad, they must be bad people; if they were neglectful, they must be fundamentally selfish and uncaring; if they were wrong, they must be ignorant or stupid, etc. Therefore, apologies represent a major threat to their basic sense of identity and self-esteem.
  • Apologizing might open the door to guilt for most of us, but for non-apologists, it can open the door instead to shame. While guilt makes us feel bad about our actions, shame makes them feel bad about their selves—who they are—which makes shame a far more toxic emotion than guilt.
  • While most of us consider apologies as opportunities to resolve interpersonal conflict, non-apologists may fear their apology will only open the floodgates to further accusations and conflict. Once they admit to one wrongdoing, surely the other person will pounce on the opportunity to pile on all the previous offenses for which they refused to apologize as well.
  • Non-apologists fear that by apologizing, they would assume full responsibility and relieve the other party of any culpability—if arguing with a spouse, for example, they might fear an apology would exempt the spouse from taking any blame for a disagreement, despite the fact that each member of a couple has at least some responsibility in most arguments.

By refusing to apologize, non-apologists are trying to manage their emotions. They are often comfortable with anger, irritability, and emotional distance, and experience emotional closeness and vulnerability to be extremely threatening. They fear that lowering their guard even slightly will make their psychological defenses crumble and open the floodgates to a well of sadness and despair that will pour out of them, leaving them powerless to stop it. They might be correct. However, they are incorrect in assuming that exhibiting these deep and pent-up emotions (as long as they get support, love, and caring when they do—which fortunately, is often the case), will be traumatic and damaging. Opening up in such a way is often incredibly therapeutic and empowering, and it can lead them to experience far deeper emotional closeness and trust toward the other person, significantly deepening their relationship satisfaction.

Credit: Psychology Today

 

You got the Wrong Number – DO NOT answer if this number is calling you

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WASHINGTON – If you get a call from the number (202) 609-7070, the Internal Revenue Service is warning you not to answer the phone.

IRS officials said those who call from this number are impersonating the IRS agents and demand payment for fake tax liens.

Authorities said the phony agent, who usually has a heavy accent, will call or leave a voice mail saying you owe money to the IRS and if it isn’t paid immediately you will be arrested.

The IRS says they have received 90,000 complaints to date about the scam and about 1,000 people have lost an estimated $5 million from the fraud.

The IRS said it will never:

  • Never ask for credit card, debit card or prepaid card information over the telephone
  • Never insist that taxpayers use a specific payment method to pay tax obligations
  • Never request immediate payment over the telephone and will not take enforcement action immediately following a phone conversation. Taxpayers usually receive prior notification of IRS enforcement action involving IRS tax liens or levies

If you get a call you believe to be a part of this scam, the IRS urges you call 1-800-366-4484 to report the incident.

For more information on phone scams and how to avoid being defrauded, visit irs.gov.

Credit: Fox13Now

 

You guys ready to do your Rain Dance because we need to make it RAIN in Cali- How bad is the California drought?

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How serious is California drought? Check out these before and after pictures, taken only three years apart.

Before: Here, the Green Bridge passes over Lake Oroville near the Bidwell Marina in 2011. Notice the trees and shrubs that grow right against the man-made lake’s edge
After: Fast forward to 2014 and even the massive pillars holding up the bridge can be completely seen at the lakes edge, where a wide swath of parched dirt spans between what’s left of the water and the tree line
Before: The marina at Oroville Lake, here in 2011, is the picture of serenity. Recent serious storms in Northern and Southern California have helped give the state a very small reprieve during the 3-year drought, but the effects have been described as a ‘drop in the bucket’
After: Much of what was once an engorged reservoir is now gone at Oroville. Shockingly, only a handful of Central Coast dams have fallen below the historically low 1977 levels
Before: Here, the Enterprise Bridge spans the Lake Oroville in Butte County, California in July 2011.
After: Here, the Enterprise Bridge spans the same reservoir, which has dwindled to a mere trickle in 2014 as California is forced to draw alarming amounts of water from its vanishing reservoirs

Datrex Emergency Survival Water Pouch (Pack of 64), 125ml

Fix Ya Grille!!! – Home Remedies For Yellow Teeth

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Baking Soda 

Baking soda is one of the most effective remedy for yellow teeth. Mix some baking soda in a glass of warm water. Use it as a mouth wash, rinse your mouth with this thrice a day. This will lead to sparkling teeth.

Strawberries 

Strawberries are rich in vitamin C, which helps to make your teeth whiter. Make a paste by grinding few strawberries, gently rub your teeth using this paste. Do this twice a day for 2 weeks, this will surely helps and vanishes the yellow tinge on your teeth.

Lemon 

Lemon has a good bleaching property which can be used to get rid of the yellow teeth. Take the juice out of lemon and add one teaspoon of salt to it then gargle your mouth with this. Scrubbing your teeth with lemon peel is also one of the best ways to make your teeth whiter.

Holy Basil 

Holy Basil have whitening properties, it also treats gum problems like pyorrhea. Take out few basil leaves and keep them in the sun for few hours, once the leaves become dry, grind them and make it as a powder. Use this as tooth powder or else you can make it as a paste by adding mustard oil in it.

Orange Peel 

Rub your teeth with orange peel before going to bed and then in the morning rinse your teeth with water. The calcium and vitamin C present in the orange peel will combat with microorganisms. This makes your teeth whiter and stronger.

Hydrogen Peroxide 

Hydrogen Peroxide has mild bleaching property, this helps to reduce the yellow staining from your teeth. Use this as a mouth wash, Gargle with hydrogen peroxide. While gargling make sure not to swallow the hydrogen peroxide.

Banana Peel 

Rub your teeth with ripe banana peel for 5 minutes, as it is rich in potassium helps to make your teeth whiter. Do this twice a day.

Charcoal 

Earlier times people used charcoal to clean the teeth. Charcoal has a crystal based chemical which helps to make your teeth whiter. Mix some charcoal in the toothpaste to get rid of the yellow stains.

Credit: Health Digezt